2020 Petrinja earthquake
|UTC time||2020-12-29 11:19:54|
|Local date||29 December 2020|
|Local time||12:19 p.m. CET (UTC+1)|
|Magnitude||6.4 Mw, 6.2 ML|
|Depth||10 km (6.2 mi)|
|Max. intensity||IX (Violent)|
|Foreshocks||3 with a ML4.0 or greater |
Largest: Mw5.2 at 05:28 UTC, 28 December 2020
Largest: Mw4.9 at 17:01 UTC, 6 January 2021
|Casualties||7 dead, 26 injured|
At approximately 12:20 PM CET (11:20 UTC) on 29 December 2020, an earthquake of magnitude 6.4 Mw (6.2 ML) hit central Croatia, with an epicenter located roughly 3 km (1.9 mi) west-southwest of Petrinja. The maximum felt intensity was estimated at VIII (Heavily damaging) to IX (Destructive) on the European macroseismic scale. Before this event there were three foreshocks, the strongest of which had a magnitude of 5.2 Mw on the day before. The earthquake was followed by numerous aftershocks, the strongest of which had a magnitude of 4.9 Mw. The adversely affected areas were mostly in the Sisak-Moslavina County and other nearby Croatian counties, as well as some of the nearby areas of Bosnia and Slovenia.
Seven people were confirmed dead, while 26 others were injured, with six having serious injuries. Initial reports show many buildings destroyed in Petrinja. The mayor of Petrinja Darinko Dumbović said that half of the town has been destroyed.
The Pokuplje seismic area follows the Kupa river valley from Karlovac to Sisak. This area has been affected by several historical earthquakes, the best known being the major event in 1909 with the epicenter near Pokupsko, with aftershocks that continued into 1910. It had a maximum felt intensity of VIII on the MCS scale. This seismicity has been associated with reactivation of northwest–southeast trending normal faults that form the southwestern boundary of the Pannonian Basin.
The last earthquake on the territory of Croatia that had a magnitude of 6.0 ML was in Ston in 1996. In 1969, the fault system which extends from Jastrebarsko over this area towards Banja Luka had a 6.6 ML earthquake which hit the latter city, and that one was also preceded by significant foreshocks one day earlier. In 1880, a 6.3 ML struck north-east of Zagreb. In March 2020, a 5.5 ML earthquake struck the city of Zagreb.
|Start of earthquake during live TV in Croatia, Tancredi Palmeri on Twitter, N1 Croatia cut. Recorded in Zagreb, 51 km (32 mi) from epicenter.|
The earthquake had a magnitude of 6.4 Mw and a depth of 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) according to Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) and European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC), while the Seismological Survey of Croatia recorded 6.2 ML. The maximum felt intensity was VIII (heavily damaging) to IX (destructive) on the European macroseismic scale (EMS) and IX (violent) on the Modified Mercalli intensity scale (MMI).
The location and depth of this event show that it was an intraplate earthquake that occurred as a result of shallow strike-slip faulting within the Eurasian Plate. The calculated focal mechanism for the event indicates that rupture occurred on a nearly vertical fault striking either to the southeast or southwest.
The earthquake was felt throughout northern Croatia, as well as in large parts of Slovenia, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Hungary, Slovakia, and Italy, as well as in some parts of Montenegro, Germany, and the Czech Republic.[better source needed]
|28 December||05:28||5.2||VII||10.0 km (6.2 mi)|||
|28 December||06:49||4.7||VI||10.0 km (6.2 mi)|||
|29 December||12:34||4.4||VI||10.0 km (6.2 mi)|||
|30 December||05:15||4.8||V||10.0 km (6.2 mi)|||
|30 December||05:26||4.7||IV||10.0 km (6.2 mi)|||
|31 December||08:15||3.7||V||10.0 km (6.2 mi)|||
|2 January||18:00||3.4||III||9.3 km (5.8 mi)|||
|4 January||06:49||4.4||III||10.0 km (6.2 mi)|||
|5 January||06:11||3.3||II||10.0 km (6.2 mi)|||
|6 January||17:01||4.9||V||10.0 km (6.2 mi)|||
|7 January||11:06||4.0||III||9.9 km (6.2 mi)|||
|9 January||21:29||4.8||VI||8.7 km (5.4 mi)|||
|10 January||23:28||3.8||IV||9.6 km (6.0 mi)|||
The town of Petrinja was the worst affected, with many buildings collapsed and a major power outage. Damage and power outages were also reported in Dvor, Glina, Gvozd, Hrvatska Kostajnica, Kutina, Sisak, Sunja, Topusko, Velika Gorica, and Zagreb, as well as the neighbouring countries Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia.
In Petrinja, the town closest to the epicenter, almost all houses were damaged. The whole town centre was heavily damaged. One elementary school was damaged. Roofs of the town hall and the Church of Saint Lawrence were destroyed. The entire village of Brest Pokupski near Petrinja was heavily damaged.
The city of Sisak, located roughly 20 km (12 mi) northeast of the epicenter, suffered major damage to its hospital, as well as its city hall. Despite the damage, the hospital was not shut down. Most damage was inflicted on old buildings in the center of the town. It is estimated that between 700 and 1,000 houses were damaged in Sisak and nearby villages.
In village of Strašnik where the epicenter was located, as well as in nearby village of Sibić, almost all houses were damaged. Part of the villages' populations were evacuated and tents with food and water were set up.
Majske Poljane is the village that suffered most damage from the earthquake; all buildings were damaged and many collapsed. It is also the place with the largest number of deaths, out of seven total fatalities five were in Majske Poljane.
Zagreb County and City of Zagreb
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Buildings were damaged in multiple towns across northwestern Bosnia and Herzegovina, in the Una-Sana Canton and northern Republika Srpska, which are roughly between 30 km (19 mi) and 90 km (56 mi) southwest, south, and southeast of the epicenter. Towns which were damaged include Velika Kladuša, Bihać, Cazin, Kozarska Dubica, and Kostajnica, which suffered the most damage from the earthquake. In Kostajnica, a state of emergency was declared, the earthquake caused six conflagrations, and many buildings were damaged, including the town hall, which was declared out of function.
Buildings were damaged in several areas and towns, mostly nearby the Slovenia–Croatia border. People reported damage to facades, roofs, and chimneys from the southeastern towns of Krško and Brežice and the old town of Kostanjevica na Krki, which lie roughly 70 km (43 mi) northwest of the epicenter. The Krško Nuclear Plant automatically shut down and was later systematically reviewed, with no damage reported. In northeastern Slovenia, roughly 125 km (78 mi) north-northwest of the epicenter, there were power and telecommunication outages in the area of its central town of Maribor, the municipal building in nearby Ptuj was damaged, and there was damage to the church in Sveta Trojica. In Ljubljana, the capital, a session of Parliament had to be stopped, and the interior of the Parliament building incurred minor damage. No injuries were recorded in the country.
A 13-year-old girl died and at least 20 others were injured in Petrinja. The town's mayor was quoted stating that half of the town was destroyed. A 20-year-old man and his father were killed when their house collapsed in Majske Poljane near Glina. Three other people were later found dead in the same village. Majske Poljane was the hardest hit of all the settlements affected by the earthquake. One person was later found dead in Žažina after the local church collapsed.
On 3 January 2021, a volunteer rescue worker fell to his death from a building while he was repairing damage from the earthquake.
- Albania – €250,000 were allocated by the Albanian government for humanitarian aid and future reconstruction of Petrinja.
- Bosnia and Herzegovina – The Ministry of Security offered the Croatian Ministry of the Interior – the Civil Protection Headquarters – assistance after the earthquake. The Bosnia and Herzegovina Ministry of Security, after consultations and coordination with institutions in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia, made two protection and rescue teams available: the team of the Federal Civil Protection Administration with 42 rescuers, and the team of the Republic Civil Protection Administration of Republika Srpska with 18 rescuers, which will be sent to the affected area with their accompanying equipment if the aid is accepted by Croatia.
- Bulgaria - The Ministry of Foreign Affairs offered condolences of the behalf of the Bulgarian people and confirmed that the Government of Bulgaria will send €100,000 for the renovation of two buildings with significant cultural value for the Bulgarian people in Croatia. Also, Minister of Foreign Affairs Ekaterina Zakharieva stated that two of Bulgaria's largest producers of bottled water have expressed desire to help the people of Croatia.
- Finland – The Minister of Foreign Affairs Pekka Haavisto offered his condolences to the victims and stated that Finland has offered assistance through the EU Civil Protection Mechanism.
- Greece – Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis offered his condolences to the victims' families, while affirming that the Greek General Secretariat for Civil Protection is ready to assist.
- Hungary – Prime Minister Viktor Orbán offered help in disaster mitigation and reconstruction in a letter to his Croatian counterpart.
- Italy – Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte said on Twitter that Italy is ready to provide Croatia with all assistance and help needed.
- Kosovo[a] – Acting President Vjosa Osmani and Acting Prime Minister Avdullah Hoti offered to send search and rescue teams of their armed forces to Croatia to help where needed.
- Montenegro – President Milo Đukanović said that Montenegro is ready to help Croatia. Dritan Abazović, the Deputy Prime Minister of Montenegro, added that Croatia can expect Montenegro to provide any help it needs.
- North Macedonia – Prime Minister Zoran Zaev announced that his cabinet came to a decision to send 6,000,000 Macedonian denars (€100,000) to Croatia.
- Romania – The Department for Emergency Situations (DSU) showed their willingness to intervene and provide support to the Croatian authorities. DSU search and rescue teams declared readiness to intervene in Croatia on the basis of the request for assistance made by the Croatian government. Raed Arafat, head of the Emergency Situations Department, requested that the RO-USAR (Romanian – Urban Search and Rescue) teams be prepared to intervene. On 30 December, Prime Minister Florin Cîțu announced that his cabinet approved a decision to send approximately €131,500 worth of aid through the DSU and the National Administration of State Reserves, consisting of living containers, tents, beds, mattresses and sleeping bags.
- Serbia – President Aleksandar Vučić announced that Serbia is ready to help Croatia both financially and technically. The next day, the Government of Serbia decided to donate €1,000,000 to Croatia for repairing the damage from the earthquake. A group of Serbian citizens from Belgrade gathered in front of the Croatian embassy as a sign of support. Serbian Chamber of Commerce donated additional 50,000€.
- Slovenia – Prime Minister Janez Janša offered to send tents, beds and heaters to help take care of those who lost their homes during the earthquake; he also offered to send experts for damage assessment.
- Turkey – President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, in phone calls to his Croatian counterpart Zoran Milanović, extended his condolences to Croatia over the magnitude 6.4 earthquake. Erdoğan also stated that Turkey is ready to provide search and rescue teams and all other help that may be needed.
- European Union – President of the European Commission Ursula von der Leyen said that the European Union is ready to support the country and that she asked Janez Lenarčič, the European Commissioner for Crisis Management, to travel to Croatia.
The earthquake prompted a preventive shutdown of the Krško Nuclear Power Plant in Slovenia, roughly 100 km (62 mi) away. The Paks Nuclear Power Plant in Hungary, roughly 300 km (190 mi) away, also felt the earthquake, but did not cease electricity production.
- 2020 Zagreb earthquake
- List of earthquakes in 2020
- List of earthquakes in 2021
- List of earthquakes in Croatia
- 2019 Albania earthquake
|a.||^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008. Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the 2013 Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is currently recognized as an independent state by 98 out of the 193 United Nations member states. In total, 113 UN member states recognized Kosovo at some point, of which 15 later withdrew their recognition.|
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